Citizen - A member of a free city or jural society, (civitas,) possessing all the rights and privileges which can be enjoyed by any person under its constitution and government, and subject to the corresponding duties. "Citizens" are members of community inspired to common goal, who, in associated relations, submit themselves to rules of conduct for the promotion of general welfare and conservation of individual as well as collective rights. In re McIntosh, D.C.Wash., 12 F. Supp. 177
The term appears to have been used in the Roman government to designate a person who had the freedom of the city, and the right to exercise all political and civil privileges of the government. There was also, at Rome, a partial citizenship, including civil, but not political rights. Complete citizenship embraced both. Thomasson v. State, 15 Ind. 451; 17 L.Q.Rev. 270; 1 Sel.Essays in Anglo-Amer. L.H. 578
In American Law: One who, under the constitution and laws of the United States, or of a particular state, is a member of the political community, owing allegiance and being entitled to the enjoyment of full civil rights. Amy v. Smith, 1 Litt. (Ky.) 331; Minor v. Happersett, 21 Wall. 162, 22 L.Ed. 627
All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction therof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. Amend.XIV. Const.U.S.; Nyman v. Erickson, 100 Wash. 149, 170 P. 546, 547.
But a state and the federal government each has citizens of its own, and the same person may be at the same time a citizen of the United States and a citizen of a state. The government of the United States can neither grant nor secure to its citizens rights or privileges which are not expressly or by implication placed under its jurisdiction. All that cannot be so granted or secured are left to the exclusive protection of the states. U.S. v. Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542, 23 L.Ed. 588
With reference to the jurisdiction and power of federal courts and removal of actions a citizen of the District of Columbia is not a "citizen of a state", Nelid v. District of Columbia, 110 F.2nd 246, 249, 71 App.D.C. 306; Glaeser v. Acacia Mut. Life Ass'n, D.C.Cal., 55 F.Supp.925, 926
- Black's Law Dictionary