By Armen Victorian

Extract from: Lobster Magazine.

On August 27th this year the British Channel Four TV programme 'The Real X-Files' gave a glimpse of the long history of US psychic research programs. As most of these programmes have been 'black', the true results and serious nature of the research have been concealed from the public and Congress. The triggering mechanism for the Pentagon's 'black projects' in this field, funded through the Central Intelligence Agency, with the help and association of DIA, NSA, as well as a number of governmental and non-governmental research laboratories, has been the substantial progress made in these fields by the former Soviet Union, and her satellites.

In the beginning From the records in hand it is clear that until approximately 1970 the US government had taken little notice of psychic research and its possible implications for intelligence and warfare. The CIA had investigated the use of psi for intelligence gathering purposes in early fifties, but rather in the way the police departments sometimes seek assistance from psychics to solve a crime.

In the course of their famous mind control projects code named ARTICHOKE, BLUEBIRD and MKULTRA, the CIA allocated a small portion of the budget to study the use of mediums in seeking intelligence from the dead, and called for a scientific study of the use of psychics for intelligence work.

In early sixties, the US Air Force commissioned the American Inst 7itute for Research [AIR] to conduct a feasibility study in the development and use of psychological phenomena for warfare. AIR published their findings under the title of 'Psychological Phenomena Applicable To The Development of Psychological Weapons', in December 1965. In their report AIR stressed the available possibilities of developments, including lasers, electromagnetic frequencies and sound. These techniques are currently under serious development, some under the so-called new concept of non-lethal weapons.

Dr. J. G. Pratt, one of the first western researchers, who visited the Soviet Union after the publication of Vasiliev's work, described how the atmosphere of meetings arranged by Dr. Eduard Naumov changed between 1963 and 1968. During the first trip the conference was open and cordial Mfor the exchange of information. But on his 1968 visit there were clear signs of unease. By then the Soviet official organ Pravda had published an article attacking parapsychology. Most of the Soviet scientists declined to deliver their research papers and Western visitors were pressed to give impromptu lectures. After that the conference organisers withdrew their invitations to the West to hold further meetings or to allow films to be shown.

Psychic Discoveries changes the Soviet line It was the the publication in 1970 of Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain which raised public interest in the USA, but that event, and subsequent broadcasts by the Voice of America to the Soviet Union on the subject seems to have made the Soviet climate worse. In 1973, four eminent members of the Moscow Academy of Sciences publis Vhed a lengthy paper, 'Parapsychology, Fiction or Reality?' in Questions of Philosophy, an official publication of the Soviet Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, attacking the subject and its researchers. The change in the 'line' was illustrated in 1974 when the Soviet parapsychologist Edward Naumov, mentioned above, who was the key Soviet contact for the authors of Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain, was sentenced to two years hard labour for a semi-related petty offence and remanded to a psychiatric 'treatment facility'. The change in the official line seems to have been an attempt not only to cut off Western researchers from Soviet work but also convince the USA that such work was not being seriously pursued in the Soviet Union.

The point was that by 1970 U.S. intelligence had become seriously interested in Soviet research O in this field. What had initially raised the CIA's eyebrows were Soviet efforts to train their cosmonauts in telepathy. This method was tested in March 1967, when a coded telepathic message was flashed from Moscow to Leningrad. Four years later Edgar Mitchell made a similar attempt in the course of his flight with the Apollo 14. Mitchell's attempt was based on studies and findings of four years of research and study, funded by the CIA, which started in 1970 in Maimonides Hospital in Brooklyn.

Among projects cited there was study of telepathy-in-dreams, by the Dream Laboratory of the Maimonides Medical Center. Their studies suggested that dreams may be influenced telepathically, with images or concepts transmitted from an individual in waking state to one who is dreaming. The Soviets were pursuing the same goals.

Stanley Kr

Parallel research was on going in - Stanford Research Institute [SRI]. SRI used fully awake subjects in their studies and experiments - though the procedures were almost identical to Maimonides. SRI was supported by the Navy and the CIA. (Later NASA also played a small role. ) There are clear indications of collaboration between Puthoff and Targ, from the SRI, and Edwin C. May, a consultant to SRI and a research associate in Division of Parapsychology and Psychophysics at Maimonides. SRI, too, followed the Soviet research line. An example is the Russian work of Nikolaiev and Kamensky which showed that when a sender was exposed to rapidly flashing light, the EEG of the receiver did show driving - i.e. telepathetic influence - by the sender. Similar work was duplicated by SRI.

Remote Viewing
SRI had termed 3 their telepathy work Remote Viewing - RV. RV involved a receiver, writing any impressions noted from a sender - almost parallel with Maimonides experiment, with one difference: in SRI experiments the receiver was awake. To prevent cheating, targets were randomly selected and the destinations only removed from a sealed envelope by the sender, after the sender and the team were en route to the target area. The sender remained in the target area for a designated time, while the receiver - the remote viewer - recorded the received impressions. The CIA's main contact in funding SRI's work was Harold Chipman. The US Navy's Project Manager in SRI was James Foote.

Andrija Puharich was born in Chicago in 1918 of Yugoslav parents. A medical doctor, with a Phd in physics, his military connection Ws dated back to the 1950s when he worked in the Army's Chemical and Biological Warfare Center at Fort Detrick, Maryland. In 1952, he presented a paper, 'An Evaluation of the Possible Uses of Extrasensory Perception in Psychological Warfare', to a secret Pentagon gathering. In 1953, he lectured the US Air Force researchers on methods of increasing or decreasing telepathy, and the US Army Chemical Center on 'Biological Foundations of Extrasensory Perception'. Most of his work was follow-up studies of Soviet experiments.

In 1962, he published an account of his studies based on his participation in programmes carried out in 1950s. He described biological and hypothetical possibilities regarding psi and also underlined the effects of drugs - consistent with the CIA's mind control programs and findings of that era. Puharich had a keen inte nrest in parapsychology. In 1956, he brought Peter Horkus, a Dutch psychic to the US, to help police in solving crime, and, with the aid of the US astronaut Edgar Mitchell, he brought Uri Geller to SRI in 1972. Throughout his career in this field CIA was interested in Puharich, partly due to his previous research findings in line with the CIA's work in mind control, and partly due to Uri Geller's participation in psychic research experiments. Mossad had provided SRI with an intelligence report on Geller's abilities.

At SRI the most notable individual subjects were Ingo Swann, Patrick Price and Uri Geller; the important projects were SCANATE [CIA-NSA] and Grill Flame [DIA].

SCANATE and Grill Flame SCANATE [SCANing by coordinATE] which started on May 29, 1973, and was completed in 1975, sent a chilling message to the military and intelligence chiefs |. In his first attempt at remote viewing a site having been given only the geographical co-ordinates, longitude and latitude, Ingo Swann described in considerable detail the features of the small French-administered island of Kerguelen in the southern Indian Ocean, including the layout of buildings and what appeared to be equipment of a joint French-Soviet meteorological research installation. He even drew a passable map of the island. Later, using co-ordinates supplied by a sceptical colleague on the East Coast, Swann described and drew a site that he felt might be some sort of military installation.

Weeks later, the East Coast colleague confirmed that Swann's descriptions were correct in every detail. Very little is known about Project Grill Flame, and all my efforts to locate records of it have been denied by various US intelligence agencies and departments. However it is d known that the CIA began Grill Flame in 1972 with the participation of Ingo Swann, Harold Puthoff and Russell Targ in SRI. Its purpose was to remote view very sensitive Soviet nuclear test sites at Semipalatinsk in Kazakhestan. It also led to the location of crashed Soviet TU-95 'Backfire' bomber in Africa. (The accuracy of this information was later verified by spy satellites.) In 1978 the DIA took over as its office of primary responsibility.

Pat Price gave an equally incredibly detailed account in the course of his share of experiments. Harold Puthoff gave Price a set of map coordinates for the target in a very special remote viewing experiment. The coordinates described an area roughly 135 miles south-west of Washington, DC. Price's response surprised Puthoff. In a five page running commentary of his remote viewing tour, Price started Boff 1500 feet above the site and went through a complex of buildings and underground storage areas. The report described communication and com-puter equipment manned by Army Signal Corps personnel, names on desks in the building and even the labels on file folders in a locked file cabinet in one of the rooms: code words such as Flytrap, Minerva, Operation Pool; folders labelled; Cueball, 14 Ball, 4 Ball, 8 Ball, Rackup.

He named the site - Haystack - and the personnel stationed there; Col. R.J. Hamilton, Major General George R. Nash, and Major John C. Calhoun. A security officer present stated, 'Hell there's no security left'. What Price had described turned out to be a satellite interrogation station which eavesdropped on Soviet space vehicles; the code words referred to those operations. The CIA scientist monitoring - the test, a physiologist from the research and development side of the agency believed he had a potential class 'A' espionage agent who could roam psychically anywhere in the world, ferreting out secrets undetected. The CIA's contract study on the Soviet efforts, 'Novel Bio-physical Information Transfer Mechanism' (NBIT) was pub-lished on Jan. 14, 1975. It concluded: 'The Russians may now be implementing the next logical step [to experiments proposed five years earlier - author], namely to reinforce, enhance, or aid NBIT in certain trained or gifted individuals after having discovered the basic communications carriers'.

The DIA's follow up reports reinforced this, warning that; 'Soviets or Czech perfection of psychotronic weapons would pose a severe threat to enemy military, embassy or secu -rity functions. The emitted energy would be silent and difficult to detect electronically. The Soviets claim to have developed effective biological energy sensors and the only power source required would be the human operator.'

RV work continued. Pat Price was asked on several occasions to provide his services to the Office of Naval Intelligence [ONI], as well as National Security Agency. After Ingo Swann's success in SCANATE, for several years he trained selected individuals with possible psychic abilities from the military and intelligence to become psychic spies. Even high ranking officers such as Major General Thompson [Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence, 1977-91], Jack Vorona [DIA], and Major General Albert Stubblebine, were indoctrinated with RV.

Psi and "quantum mechanics

The SRI remote viewers were studied by top physicists. Ingo Swann and Uri Geller surprised Nobel laureate Brian Josephson, who first developed the Josephson junction, the basis for measuring biomagnetism. Both of them managed to deflect the SQUID [the needle on the chart recorder] to such a degree that Josephson, like Evan Harris Walker, suggested that physics needs to adopt a new paradigm to incorporate hidden variables and universal intelligence. In the early 1970s Evan Harris Walker tried to incorporate psi phenomena within the framework of quantum mechanics. Walker's theory links consciousness to the hidden variables of quantum theory. He also referred to the psychic deformation of material objects in his work and specifically to the magnetometer tests at SRI with In Dgo Swann. He stated that the magnitude of PK effects on the SRI magnetometer with Ingo Swann agreed with theoretical calculations.

Helmut Schmidt, a physicist responsible for many of the innovative experiments which have made the connection between psi and quantum mechanics, has also proposed a theory of psi function based on quantum mechanical principals. David Bohm, another prominent physicist, who personally studied Geller, like his colleagues Henry Margenau and O. Costa Beauregard, has repeatedly stated that there is nothing in quantum physics that forbids psi phenomena. De Beauregard maintains that certain axioms of quantum physics virtually demand that psi phenomena exist. Eugine Wigner, a Nobel prize winner, and Prof. John Taylor (Kings College, London), both argued that Geller's effects may arise from low fre 1quency electromagnetic radiation produced by the heart, brain and muscles, proving the West's increasing convergence with the Soviet psi studies.

Security concerns
The literature indicates that the US military mislead both the Congress and the media at that time of these experiments because of growing concern for psychic security. Such concern was expressed by Ron Robertson, a security officer at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in California. Robertson, who had followed psychic developments on an official capacity, seriously feared that a talented psychic might trigger or disable a warhead merely by psychokinetic force of mind. 'All it takes is the ability to move one-eight of an ounce, a quarter of an inch at a distance of one foot', he warned.

Under 'congressional pressure on the Defense Depart ment to funds its own psychic research programme, the Pentagon's Advanced Researched Project Agency (ARPA) decided to evaluate Geller at SRI in 1972 to determine if any further testing warranted Pentagon money.' The Pentagon decision was taken after Geller had spent four successful weeks of experiments with some of the world's leading physicists and psychologists at SRI in November and December 1972. The ARPA team, led by George Lawrence, Deputy Director of Human Resources at ARPA, included Ray Hyman, a frequent consultant to the Department of Defense and the Science Foundation, and Gerry Shore, both of whom were amateur magicians. Their evaluation were negative and Geller was accused of fraud and using magic tricks.

Their evaluation was del ?iberately flawed. For example, instead of blindfolding Geller, as SRI had always done when asked to telephatically identify drawings, he was asked to cover his eyes with his hands. They then accused him of peeking. SRI later vehemently criticised ARPA's review and called it a debacle. After ARPA's review claiming Geller to be a fraud, Hyman filed a report with the Department of Defense and sent a copy to Martin Gardner at the Scientific American in which Targ and Puthoff were hoping to publish their findings. Three months after ARPA's review, Leon Jaroff published an article in Time, presenting Targ and Puthoff as sloppy researchers and Geller as a fraud.

Others like James Randi, and more recently retired Colonel John Alexander, who was the chief of Advanced Human Technology Office, US Army Intelligence an Zd Security Command, and Director of Advanced Systems Concepts Office, US Army Laboratory Command, have followed the line. Despite the fact that he was fully aware of psi work throughout his career, in his book, The Warrior's Edge, Alexander refers to a series of trivialities. Yet, as a NATO advisor on the more serious aspects of psi-related weapons - some now categorised as non-lethal weapons - he wants to classify the research in this field.

Despite the campaign of disinformation by US military and intelligence, the US House of Representatives' Committee on Science and Technology in June 1981 released a 530-page study, based on two years research, entitled 'Survey of Science and Technology Issues Present and Future', which stated, 'In the area of national defense, there are obvious implications of one's ability to identify distant site ~s and affect sensitive instruments or other humans. A general recognition of the degree of inter-connectiveness of minds could have far-reaching social and political implications for this nation and the world'. Two years later another report, from the Congressional Research Service, titled 'Research into "Psi" Phenomena: Current Status and Trends of Congressional Concern', echoed the same views.

Project Landbroker
In 1982, Major General Albert Stubblebine, Director of US Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM), a keen psi believer, employed several psychics to remote view the house of Panamanian General Manuel Noriega, who was suspected of funnelling arms from Nicaraguan Sandanistas to El Salvadorian leftist guerillas. Remote viewers managed to scan Noreiga's house, and provide a detailed, two page report of the rooms and their contents. In response to my FOIA request f for records concerning this operation INSCOM, in their letter of October 4, 1994, informed me that 'The results of searches revealed no records concerning Operation/Project Landbroker'. Eventually, on August 25, 1995, INSCOM released relevant records concerning this project. A SECRET/NOFORN letter, dated March 17, 1988, from the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, and signed by Col. Donald F. Ullmann, GS, Chief, HUMINT Division, makes it clear that it was a 'black' project: 'Though official files for Project LANDBROKER do not exist at INSCOM, nor is there information on the Project in material sequestered in conjunction with YELLOW FRUIT cases ....some material was retained by ADCSOPS-H Desk Office.'

The letter adds,
'Part 1 of the Project involved an attempt to conduct a psychic penetration of a residence that was used by Noriega as . a meeting site'.

Another SECRET/NOFORN letter from US Army Intelligence and Security Command, signed by Brigadier General Ira C. Owens, Deputy Commander, dated February 29, 1996, describes the project: 'In 1983 this Headquarters initiated a project named LANDBROKER. The project appears to have been at the direction of MG Stubblebine (then CG INSCOM). The effort was conducted by the Quick Reaction Team (QRT) of the ADCSOPS-OPSEC staff. This was an offensive intelligence collection operation broken down into four parts, designed to collect information using psychic penetrations. LANDBROKER projects were always targeted against foreign nationals and never involved US citizens.'

The no-name projects
Today US military and intelligence have projects, identified only by numbers, which monitor the progr _ess, research and development of psychic research worldwide. Information gathered through various Department of Defence sections is filtered up to the DIA for final evaluation

US Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) Projects

For several years through their information gathering mission of Project 260130, INSCOM have been collecting information on a wide range of topics in relation to paranormal topics and psychic warfare. On August 18, 1995, in response to my inquiry concerning the use of psychics in matters relating to operations, projects, studies, or programmes, INSCOM released documents concerning the 'Activities of the Japan Psychotronics Institute, a parapsychology organization affiliated with the International Associati on for Psychotronics Research, located in Czechoslovakia'. Previously released records show similar intelligence interest in other countries including China, Russia, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, former East Germany, Bulgaria and North Korea. These reports are dispatched to DIA for final evaluation for their intelligence value. Most of them are gathered through methods and sources utilising Human Intelligence. Copies of these reports, in addition to a host of DoD military components, are also sent to the CIA and NSA.

223310 Not much is known about this project, except it also collects information on paranormal topics in relation to psychic warfare. INSCOM informed me in their letter of April 24, 1995, that this project ha s been ongoing for 25 years. The records released show that one of the main missions of this project is/was to obtain pertinent information from serious sources who are prepared or encouraged to defect. West Germany then seemed to be one crossing point for that purpose. US Air Force project 140410, is also similarly tasked. Unevaluated reports gathered by the Air Force are sent to Air Intelligence Agency and DIA. The DIA has the final tasking for their evaluation. It is now clear that both Russia and the US, while publicly down-playing its seriousness, have continued psychic research, follow any progress, using their intelligence agencies, and whispering ignorance in public forums.

Arthur Lyons and Marcello Truzzi Phd., Blue Sense; Psychic Detectives and Crime, (Mysterious Press, New York 1991). CIA released records on ESP to author - 1987. On this and related areas see 'On Some Matters of Concern in Psychic Research' by Michael Rossman, in John White, (ed.) Psychic Warfare: Fact or Fiction?

(The Acquarian Press, London 1988), especially pp. 84/5 which discusses some of the documents released to me. 'Psychological Phenomena Applicable To The Development of Psychological Weapons', Clifford

P. Hahn and staff, American Institute of Research, Washington Office, December 1965; prepared for Directorate of Armament Development. Research and Technology Division, Air Force Systems Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. According to documents released to author in August 1995, from Technical Support Working Group (TSWG), of the U.S. State Department, in Jan. 1994, there were a total of 95 projects - of which 23 are operational, 5 follow-on development pursued in TSWG, 10 follow-on development pursued by another agency; 7 projects were completed, 4 were completed and proved not viable therefore terminated, 42 active projects not yet operational, and 4 new starters. On Vasiliev see 'Distant Influence' by Anita Gregory in White (ed) op. cit. 2 I have a CIA released, untitled memorandum dated 15 March 1963 headed 'Proposed Visit of Source to USSR'. Point three of the memo states: 'We would be particularly interested in all data and publications he may be able to accumulate with particular reference to the field of ESP.'

Although the name of the source has been removed I believe it to be Pratt S. Ostrander and L. Schroeder, Psychic Discoveries Behind the Iron Curtain, (Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1970). Anita Gregory, Introduction to Leonid Vasiliev's Experiments in Distant Influence, (E. P. Dutton, New York, 1974), p. 54. Michael Rossman, op. cit. 2,

p. 117. A recently released, untitled document from the U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence shows that the US knew that despite the official Soviet line, which resulted in the closure of a number of notable psychic research laboratories, the Soviets continued their research. Records released by the Office of Naval Intelligence to the author in August 1995. /_ 'Novel Biophysical Information Transfer Mechanism (NBIT)', Final Report, Jan. 14, 1975. Records released to author by the CIA. DSET H H` Ronald M. McRae, Mind Wars, (St. Martin Press, New York, 1984),

p. 3 Stanley Krippner, Human Possibilities; Mind Exploration in the USSR and Eastern Europe, (Doubleday, New York,1981), pp. 161-2. _ McRae, op. cit. 11, p. 56. McDonnell Aerospace Foundation was founded by James McDonnell of McDonnell Douglas Corp. McRae does not mention the name of the CIA conduit in his work. Ibid. p. 2. The U.S. Navy had employed 34 psychics on this work. J. Gaither Pratt, ESP Research Today, (Scarecrow Press, NY, 1973), pp. 55-83 Richard Broughton, Parapsychology; The Controversial Science, (Ballantine Books, New York, 1991), pp. 102, 105 and 6. Contract 953653 under NAS7-100, SRI Project 2613. Report titled 'Development of Techniques to Enhance Man/Machine Communication'. NASA contract to SRI began in 1973, through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, an unincorporated division of the California Institute of Technology - CALTECH. Broughton op. cit. 16, pp. 40 and 322. Ostrander and Shroeder, op. cit. 6,

p. 29. DIA called this method Target Phenomenology. Chipman had been Chief of Operations of Nha Trang Office called the Combined Studies Detachment, in Vietnam, had previously been stationed in Moscow, Berlin and Miami, and had served in Sumatra [Indonesia], Korea, Philippines and Laos. Chipman is the subject of four citations as a CIA officer in Daniel Brandt's NameBase. Information on Foote from private sources P42 A. Puharich, The Sacred Mushroom, (Doubleday, Garden City, New York, 1959) Truzzi and Lyons, op. cit. 1,

p. 114 Uri Geller and Guy Lyon Playfair, The Geller Effect, (Grafton, London, 1988), p. 244. The CIA, NSA, DIA and ONI have denied the existence of any records on this project Russell Targ and Harold E. Puthoff, Mind Reach: Scientists Look at Psychic Ability, (Delacorte, New York, 1977) p. 52 'In 1984, columnist Jack Anderson published a series of articles on a CIA project codenamed Grill Flame...[which] had produced information later verified by satellite about a very sensitive nuclear test site at Semipalatinsk in Soviet Kazakhstan, and had led to the location of a crashed Soviet TU-95 'Backfire' bomber somewhere in Africa.' Geller and Lyon Playfair, op. cit. 25,

p. 342. John L. Wilhelm,'Psychic Spying' in Washington Post (Sunday Magazine) 7 August 1977. Ibid. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation (Radio Waves and Microwaves) - Eurasian Communist Countries, Defense Intelligence Agency, Oct. 1976. One such recent device is called Elipton, of which Profesor Vlail Kaznacheyev said: Sensors of the Elipton act on eyes and ears and transform scenery and sounds into bio-flows which are transmitted into space towards cosmic regulators. By targeting these signals to sensitive receivers and decoders, they could be used to collect information for military, scientific or plitical intelligence. Once the target [a human being] is included in the intelligence gathering system, or any other phase of the weapon, he becomes its slave. This could lead him to the state where he would execute any order, including suicide - such is the power of the Elipton Confidential sources. The individuals concerned and their periods of service in this field are: Sgt. Lyn Buchanan, 1983-92,

Sgt. Mel Riley, 1978-90, Ingo Swann, 1972-89, Maj. Edward Dames, 1984-89. Telephone conversation with Maj. Edward Dames, and ONI sources. Also see Lobster 25 for Edward Dames. Jack Verona referred to the RV experiments in a letter to the Independent on Sunday, 1 October 1995. McRae, op. cit. 11,

pp. 78-79, and Brian Josephson speaking on the BBC World Service radio programme 'The Unexplained', May 5, 1987. See Evan H. Walker, 'Measurement in Quantum Mechanics Revisited'; Response to Phillip's 'Criticism of the Quantum Mechanical Theory of Psi', Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1987, No. 81,

pp. 333-369; and Helmut Schmidt,'The Strange Properties of Psychokinesis', Journal of Scientific Exploration, 1987, No. 1, pp. 103-118, and 'Collapse of the State Vector and PK Effects' in Foundation of Physics, no. 12 (1982) pp. 565-581 O. Casta de Beauregard, 'Quantum Paradoxes and Aristotle's Twofold Information Concept', in Laura Oteri (ed.), Quantum Physics and Para-psychology, (New York Parapsychology Foundation, 1975), pp. 91-102. See also Broughton op. cit. 16, p. 75. M. Carlyn, 'An Assessment of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator', Journal of Personality Assessment, 1977, No. 41, pp. 461-473. Taylor placed a small crystal of lithium fluoride in a plastic container. Geller held his hands several inches over the container. Within ten seconds the crystal shattered into several pieces.

Taylor stated that there was no chance for Geller to have touched the crystal, since at all times during the experiment he could see a gap between Geller's hand and the container. Since then, apparently, under severe peer presure, Taylor has recanted and apparently now believes that although he saw what he saw, and is unable to explain how the fraud was carried out, it must have been a fraud. Wilhelm op. cit. 30 ) / ) McRae op. cit. 12, pp. 49 and 80-81. /( Ibid. p. 82. Geller and Lyon Playfair, op. cit. 25,

p. 261 Col. John B. Alexander, Major Richard Groller and Janet Morris, The Warrior's Edge, (William Morrow and Company Inc., New York, 1990). Janet Morris split with Alexander because he wanted to classify it. See Wired February 1995 for the split. See also Steven Aftergood,'The Soft-Kill Fallacy' in The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, September/October 1994 NOFORN= no foreigners. Records released by the US Army Security and Intelligence Command, August 1995. Records released to author by the US Army Intelligence and Security Command, 1995.

I was initially asked to pay the sum of $2,075,000 (!) for the costs of copying the documents Records released to the author by the US Army Intelligence and Security Command, 1995. Correspondence with US Air Force Air Intelligence Agency, USAF/AIA, Jan. 24, Apr. 14, and Aug. 17, 1995